R 1 indicates a side chain: a group of atoms that make each one of the 20 amino acids chemically unique. There are 20 amino acids. You can think of them as an alphabet. In the same way that English uses the 26 letters of the alphabet to create hundreds of thousands of words, cells use various combinations of amino acids to create hundreds of thousands of proteins.
As a result, proteins are the most diverse macromolecule. In diagrams about proteins and protein synthesis, amino acids are represented by three letter abbreviations. Two linked amino acids form a dipeptide see above.
A chain of amino acids that are linked together is known as a polypeptide. A polypeptide can as short as a few amino acids, or hundreds of amino acids long. A polypeptide. Interactions between amino acids cause a polypeptide to fold into a specific shape.
Genetic Code: Introduction
This leads to the notion of levels of protein structure. There are no light ribosomes. The absence of light ribosomes shows that phage infection does not cause the synthesis of new ribosomes. All ribosomes in cells that have undergone phage infection are old.
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This shows that old ribosomes that were making bacterial proteins are used to make phage proteins, and that the "one gene, one ribosome, one protein" hypothesis is incorrect. Analysis of the location of 32 P in the gradient shows that there is no newly-synthesized nucleic acid associated with separated ribosomal subunits, but there is newly-synthesized nucleic acid associated with complete ribosomes. In addition, there is 32 P associated with a fast-sedimenting nucleic acid recovered from the bottom of the gradient.
The newly-synthesied nucleic acid is a large molecule. It was known that there is a burst of RNA synthesis associated with phage infection.
Characteristics Of The Genetic Code | A-Level Biology Revision Notes
Together, these results show that newly-synthesized RNA associates with old ribosomes during pahge infection. The newly-synthesized RNA is a large molecule. They went on to show that the labeled RNA resulting from phage infection did not hybridize to bacterial DNA, but hybridized to phage DNA, showing that the RNA molecules produced upon phage infection are transcribed from the phage genome. A transfer RNA has a cloverleaf structure with regions of base pairing.
A tRNA has the structure shown here both as a flat cloverleaf and in its folded form. There are two very important parts of a tRNA: the anticodon, which participates in base pairing with a codon in the mRNA, and the site of amino acid attachment at the 3' end of the tRNA.
2. Making protein is the goal of translation
This shows a "charged" serine tRNA, covalently attached to the amino acid serine at its 3' end, with the anticodon paired to a serine codon. This is a better representation of the 3D structure of a tRNA. If you're ready to pass your A-Level Biology exams, become a member now to get complete access to our entire library of revision materials. Not ready to purchase the revision kit yet? No problem.
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Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible
The genetic code consists of 64 triplets of nucleotides. These triplets are called codons.
With three exceptions, each codon encodes for one of the 20 amino acids used in the synthesis of proteins. That produces some redundancy in the code: most of the amino acids being encoded by more than one codon. The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material DNA or RNA sequences is translated into proteins amino acid sequences by living cells. The genetic code, once thought to be identical in all forms of life, has been found to diverge slightly in certain organisms and in the mitochondria of some eukaryotes.
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